Integration of molecular and enzymatic catalysts on graphene for biomimetic generation of antithrombotic species
T. Xue, B. Peng, M. Xue, X. Zhong, C.-Y. Chiu, S. Yang, Y. Qu, L. Ruan, S. Jiang, S. Dubin, R. B. Kaner, J. I. Zink, M. E. Meyerhoff, X. Duan and Y. Huang
Nature Commun. 5, 3200 (2014)
The integration of multiple synergistic catalytic systems can enable the creation of biocompatible enzymatic mimics for cascading reactions under physiologically relevant conditions. Here we report the design of a graphene–haemin–glucose oxidase conjugate as a tandem catalyst, in which graphene functions as a unique support to integrate molecular catalyst haemin and enzymatic catalyst glucose oxidase for biomimetic generation of antithrombotic species. Monomeric haemin can be conjugated with graphene through π–π interactions to function as an effective catalyst for the oxidation of endogenous L-arginine by hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, glucose oxidase can be covalently linked onto graphene for local generation of hydrogen peroxide through the oxidation of blood glucose. Thus, the integrated graphene–haemin–glucose oxidase catalysts can readily enable the continuous generation of nitroxyl, an antithrombotic species, from physiologically abundant glucose and L-arginine. Finally, we demonstrate that the conjugates can be embedded within polyurethane to create a long-lasting antithrombotic coating for blood-contacting biomedical devices.